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FAQ

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No. Apart from the loading bunker, the ERF is a sealed unit so odour will not escape. Any odour in the bunker is sucked into the facility and used to assist the gasification process.

EfW is considered to be environmentally safe, and to pose virtually no risk to health.

The circular economy is considered to be a key part of the solution to the global emissions and waste problem with EfW as a vital complement to the circular economy as it avoids landfilling, reduce GHG emissions and generate renewable energy and is the only electricity
generating technology with positive effect on GHG emissions.

Report from the German Federal Government says that "without EfW/ERF plants, there would be more pollutants in the air" That´s because many pollutants are already in waste and, having entered EfW/ERF plants with the waste, are extracted during the emissions filtering process.

According to the Dutch Government, "EfW/ERF plants in rural areas have no damaging effect on agricultural
products".

As Energos technology boasts a twenty five year track record and actual emissions data illustrates that most emission elements are at less than 10 per cent of EU permitted levels, with NOx at approximately 40 per cent.

The Energos technology is proven beyond doubt with over 900,000 operating hours at 10 plants built in Europe, First plant was commissioned in 1997 which leaves the technology with almost a 25 year track record. Ultralow emissions still classify the technology as state of the art.

Several European countries utilise EfW technology, with Germany and Scandinavia in particular operating a number of gasification type plants.

There are many ‘mass burn' incinerators in operation worldwide, however, many Governments and local authorities are now considering 'gasification' ERF as a cleaner and more effective way of dealing with waste disposal.

Unlike today's modern facilities, a number of plants that were developed during the late 1960s and 70s simply burnt or incinerated waste, using mains gas or other fossil fuels.

However, modern facilities recover energy from the process and are therefore classed as ERF facilities, as opposed to being simply an incineration plant.

Energos ERF plants utilise Advanced Conversion Technology (ACT) and only use a small amount of natural gas to kick start the gasification process.

Bottom ash, which makes up the vast majority of the residual material generated, is not hazardous. APCR is classed as a hazardous material and is disposed of in the appropriate safe manner.

There are two residual materials. The main one is bottom ash and the second is air pollution control residue (APCR), which is commonly known as fly ash. Bottom ash is frequently used as material in block manufacture or as a blend component for aggregate, used in road building etc.

Construction time takes approximately 18 months to two years, depending on planned capacity and local conditions.

Compared to 'mass burn' incinerators, which normally accommodate chimneys of between 70 and 120 metres, a typical Energos plant requires a chimney of approximately 40 metres, dependent on the particular location.

The smaller chimney size is a consequence of its use of much cleaner gasification technology.

No, Energos plants are not licensed to deal with such wastes.

If all locally generated waste was treated in an ERF facility, it might be considered wasteful.

ERF forms an option under the recovery part of the waste hierarchy on which all waste strategy in this country is based and is preferable to landfill disposal.

At the top of the waste hierarchy is waste minimisation, followed by reuse, recycling and composting, but the success of those activities will naturally depend on the public's co-operation.

Since there are limits on how much we can landfill in future, recovering energy from the remaining waste will help us meet our EU landfill diversion targets and avoid large fines from the Government.

ERF disposes of residual waste that would otherwise, in most cases, end up in a landfill, without recovering much of the energy that it contains.

In many cases, our plants provide a way of unlocking the energy in waste that cannot be recycled. This is an environmental improvement over burning scarce fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal.

Energy generated from the biomass within residual household waste (i.e. that remaining after household kerbside recycling) is renewable/carbon neutral. This helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions because coal or oil is displaced and methane production from landfill is avoided.

Waste minimisation and recycling are very important, but the fact is that together both of these approaches cannot solve our waste problems.

Even by meeting the challenging recycling targets set by central government, they still can be left with approximately 50 per cent of its waste needing an alternative form of disposal.

ERF is a well-proven technology that can provide the opportunity to treat the waste left after recycling and release the energy value contained within the materials. It is the only realistic way of helping authorities achieve diversion of waste from landfill.

Countries with high levels of recycling, such as The Netherlands and Germany, still have high levels of EfW/ERF plants. Evidence over a long period shows that recycling and EfW/ERF can successfully coexist.

In the most widely used EfW process, waste is burned on a moving grate. Air is introduced above and beneath the grate in carefully controlled amounts to ensure proper combustion. Good combustion means lower emissions.

The hot gases released are directed to a boiler to recover the heat. Around 700 kilowatt-hours of electricity per tonne of waste combusted can be recovered.

The combustion gases are then cleaned in several stages to a strict standard set by the Industrial Emission Directive (IED 2010/75/EU), which are monitored by the local Environment Protection Agency (EPA).

ERF stands for Energy Recovery Facility, which better describes modern Energy from Waste (EfW) processes.

ERF is now firmly related to Advanced Conversion Technologies (ACT's) or Advanced Thermal Treatment (ATT) - two terminologies that are used to differentiate new clean technology from conventional incineration.

EfW is the name often given to the thermal treatment of waste under controlled conditions in which energy is produced.

This energy can either be converted to electricity to boost the National Grid and/or, at times, to provide heat in the form of hot water or steam, for use by nearby developments.

The amount of electricity produced depends on the size of the plant and the waste characteristic. A typical Energos EfW/ERF plant can treat c100,000 tonnes of waste per year and that will provide an electricity generation capacity of c11.0MWe. This would meet the domestic electricity needs of around 15,000 homes.

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